Angola: The black revolution underway (1977)

Nahuel Moreno

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In April of 1975, a popular revolution finished with the dictatorship of Caetano in Portugal. One of its immediate consequences was the end of its colonial rule in Africa. In the case of Angola, it was agreed that on 11 November 1975, the formal act of independence would take place, but in August a bloody civil war that lasted for more than 20 years broke out. The confrontation between the MPLA (supported by the USSR, Cuba and the communist parties) and FLNA-UNITA occurred when there had not yet been a withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial army. There were different positions in the Fourth International (Unified Secretariat). The differences remained and deepened when, following the retreat of the colonialists, the confrontation between the MPLA and the FLNA-UNITA, directly supported by South Africa and its troops, continued. Moreno debated both the leadership of the United States SWP and the Mandelist majority headed by the French LCR.