Nahuel Moreno

(1924-1987)

"I do not think that the triumph of socialism is inevitable. I believe the result depends on the class struggle, in which we are immersed. And that, then, what is essential is to fight, to fight with rage to triumph. Because we can succeed. There is no God who has determined we cannot do it."

This page aims to disseminate the written of Nahuel Moreno, both in its political aspects and his works in history, logic, etc. It is driven by Izquierda Socialista (Socialist Left) of Argentina, which integrates the International Workers Unity (Fourth International).

Who was Nahuel Moreno?

The beginning

Nahuel Moreno (1924-1987) was one of the principal leaders of Latin American Trotskyism. Born in Argentina, he spent most of his life accompanying the workers and popular struggles and promoting the construction of socialist Leninist revolutionary parties. He began his political activity within the Argentine labour movement in 1943-44, with the foundation of the Marxist Workers Group (GOM). One of his first challenges was to respond to the new phenomenon of the emergence of Peronism and the massive shift of workers to it. In 1945 his small group had an outstanding performance in the meatworkers strike.

Internationalism

In 1948 he travelled to Europe to participate for the first time in a World Congress of the Fourth International, which was founded in 1938 by Leon Trotsky. From the late 1940s and early 1950s the Trotskyist movement began to go through a long process of crisis, divisions and disintegration (caused largely by the brutal persecution suffered by Stalinism, beginning with the death of Trotsky in 1940), which has not yet been overcome. Within the Trotskyist movement Moreno was shaping a current characterized by its permanent attachment to the worker and peasant struggles of the continent. From there he polemised numerous times with the positions of another Trotskyist leader, also very well known as an economist, the Belgian Ernest Mandel (of the "United Secretariat").

The builder

Under the leadership of Moreno numerous groups and parties in different countries stood out for their dynamism and their ongoing relationship with the processes of struggle and organization of workers. In Argentina, the party led by Moreno had several names (POR, PSRN, Palabra Obrera, PRT, PRT (La Verdad), PST (which was banned in 1976 by the dictatorship), MAS (founded in 1982). During the 1960s, while promoting the defence of the Cuban revolution, he consistently argued with the pro-guerrilla conceptions. Also in those years, in 1961, he directly accompanied the experience of peasant unionization and land seizures that led Hugo Blanco in the Peruvian valleys of Convention and Lares. During the 1970s, the PRT (La Verdad) first and then the PST, were built to defend the workers and socialist positions and polemising against the pro-guerrilla PRT–ERP (led by Mario Roberto Santucho), and the Montoneros, belonging to Peronism. In 1979, from his place of exile in Bogota he prompted the formation of the Simon Bolivar Brigade, which fought alongside the FSLN in the fight against Somoza. In 1982 he formed an international tendency, the IWL–FI (International Workers League – Fourth International), which quickly became the most dynamic of Latin American Trotskyism of those years. Upon his death in January 1987, there was a process of discussion and crisis in his current. Currently different groups still claim his legacy and trajectory.

Complete biography

Writtings by Nahuel Moreno

The Party

    We are publishing for the first time since 1944, this foundational document of the Marxist Workers Group (GOM). Written in 1943 by a young Nahuel Moreno, barely 19 years old. Polemising against Liborio Justo (Quebracho), Moreno proposes to move away from the circles and debates of intellectuals that predominated in Trotskyism. Its central axis is to connect with the workers' movement and its struggles. Thus, with a handful of young people, he began to take the first steps in the construction of a revolutionary party, following the guidance of Lenin in his book What is to be done?

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    Latin American Theses

      In this work, Moreno pointed out the semi-colonial and backward character of all Latin America and its role as producer of raw materials and of little industrial development. He highlighted the preponderant role of US imperialism, followed by England, with unevenness in the different Latin American countries.

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      Argentina's economic structure(1948-50)

        In the late 1940s, Nahuel Moreno expressed into two papers (“The agrarian thesis” and “The industrial thesis”) the studies he had been carrying out and discussing within the GOM —to become POR — on the structural characteristics of the country. Later on, in 1950, this elaboration continued in a polemic with other groups and leaders of Trotskyism, in the article “Centrism in Figures” printed in Revolución Permanente magazine. The three works are still very useful and valid, as for example on the issue the Peron government was not "industrialist", the weight of family production in the countryside, the important imperialist economic penetration, among others. They are archival materials which were not republished until now.

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        The break with Pabloism

          After the Third World Congress of the Fourth International, held in August 1951, the leadership of Pablo and Mandel began to adopt increasingly revisionist positions and of capitulation to the Stalinist bureaucracy and bourgeois nationalist leaderships. Among other events, they betrayed the workers' revolution in Bolivia in 1952 and bureaucratically expelled the French section. The POR approved these documents breaking with Pabloism, written by Nahuel Moreno and published for the first time.

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          The Gorilla Coup of 1955

            In The gorilla coup of 1955 three important documents on Peronism are collected. In the first paper, 1954, Key year of Peronism, the bourgeois nationalist movement led by General Perón and born a decade earlier is located in the framework of Yankee imperialism's offensive on Latin America. The second paper, Who knew how to fight against the "Liberating Revolution" before 16 September 1955?, collects articles published in the newspaper La Verdad, with an introduction by Milciades Peña. The third and last, After Perón what?, locates the new situation of the country and of the workers after the victory of the imperialist-oligarchic counterrevolution and gives an extensive program and orientation to continue the fight against the military dictatorship.

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            Historical context of the hungarian revolution

              In 1956 the political revolution forecasted by Trotsky breaks out in Poland and, especially, Hungary. In this work, a young Nahuel Moreno analyses the broad features of both revolutions, the oppressive character of the Soviet Union, and he raises the slogan “Red Army leave the Eastern European Countries!”

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              Theses of Leeds

                Paper presented to the Congress of the International Committee of the Fourth International, held in Leeds, Great Britain. In this paper, Moreno deals with the crises open within the counter-revolutionary Stalinist apparatuses after the political revolution in Hungary and its crashing by the Red Army in 1956.

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                The permanent revolution in the postwar period

                  In 1958, the Fourth International (International Committee) conference held in Leeds in 1958 adopted a draft resolution on the world situation prepared by Farrell Dobbs, one of the most important leaders of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States. Moreno, who was attending the conference, makes important criticisms of the document. On his return to Argentina, he writes this report to the Latin American Secretariat of Orthodox Trotskyism for its meeting in January 1959.

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                  Peru: two strategies

                    The peasant rebellion headed by Hugo Blanco and the polemic with putschism (1961-1963).

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                    The Latin American Revolution

                      Was Cuba a workers’ state? Did the Cuban revolution follow the general outline of Trotsky’s theory of the permanent revolution? Ae there gaps in the theory of the permanent revolution? Is armed struggle necessary? What is more important, guerrilla warfare o workers’ and popular militias? Do we have to build the revolutionary party of the proletariat? These and other important issues are dealt with in this important paper from 1962.

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                      Two methods for the Latin American revolution

                        Critical remarks to the works of Ernesto “Che” Guevara “The guerrilla warfare”, “Cuba: exceptional case or vanguard in the struggle against colonialism” and “Guerrilla warfare: a method”. Article published in the magazine Estrategia (second era), Buenos Aires, 1964.

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                        Argentina, a country in crisis

                          In July 1963, Arturo Illía, of the UCRP (People’s Radical Civic Union) won the presidential elections. Peronism was still outlawed (with Peron exiled in Madrid). And former President Frondizi, ousted in 1962, was confined to Bariloche. A few days later, Nahuel Moreno wrote a brief report and in November he presented an extensive oral report on the new situation and the tasks that were posed for Palabra Obrera. In April 1964 both were published as a book, together with two editorials of the paper Palabra Obrera.

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                          Nahuel Moreno’s report and a debate with Roberto Santucho

                            In May 1965, the unification congress between Palabra Obrera and FRIP was held. In his oral report on the national situation, where a written document was debated, Moreno, to avoid repeating it, spoke on how policy is developed, the objective of the program, the formulation of the slogans and other general aspects. And he specifically broadened the issue of the tactic of proposing 'that the CGT be a worker’s party.' We also publish Roberto Santucho's speeches on this slogan.

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                            Letter to Gonzalez Moscoso (Bolivia)

                              In November 1964 a military coup in Bolivia overthrew the bourgeois government of the MNR (whose vice president was the bureaucrat of COB, Juan Lechin). A few months later, in September 1965, Moreno wrote to Hugo González Moscoso, leader of the POR-Combate, related to the sector of the Fourth International led by Mandel and Pierre Frank, to point out some discrepancies about the orientation of POR-Combate. Subsequently, the letter was reproduced in several publications. In particular, in 1973, Moreno quoted it extensively in its controversy against Mandel and the guerrilla deviation. See The Party and the Revolution on this page. We reproduce the text of Revista de América Nº 6/7, from July / October 1971.

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                              The struggle has just begun

                                In June 1966, a military coup led by General Juan Carlos Onganía overthrew the Radical constitutional president Arturo Illía. Peronism expressed its sympathy and expectations towards the dictatorship. The leadership of the PRT discussed and approved this work by Moreno, which was published as a brochure in September 1966.

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                                Guevara: Hero and martyr of the permanent revolution

                                  Article published in La Verdad, organ of the PRT (Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Revolutionary Workers Party) of Argentina on the 23 October 1967, shortly after Guevara’s assassination

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                                  The Chinese and Indochinese Revolutions

                                    While the October Revolution began the epoch of world socialist revolution, the Chinese Revolution definitively broke the imperialist equilibrium. It temporarily transferred the centre of the world revolution to the underdeveloped and colonial nations. It ended the isolation of the Soviet Union and thus posed an immediate possibility of a Federation of Eurasian Socialist States, a possible bridge to a World Federation of Socialist States. It forced Yankee Imperialism to develop a worldwide strategy to confront the colonial revolution. It indirectly produced two counter-revolutionary wars, the Korean and Indochinese. It has made the destruction of imperialism within its own borders, as the only way to avert a nuclear war, an urgent necessity on the world political agenda. Finally, it has posed the problem of problems, that of a unified strategy and organisation by which the revolutionaries of the entire planet may confront imperialism.

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                                    Bolshevik or spontaneist morality

                                      In 1969, Nahuel Moreno wrote the work that we reproduce here. The pamphlet was written responding to concrete problems that arose in the work of building the party in Argentina. Moreno was detained in Lima, Peru. Shortly after, he was acquitted, regained his freedom, and returned to Buenos Aires.

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                                      After the Cordobazo

                                        We have reproduced under this title texts prepared by Nahuel Moreno and other comrades who worked alongside him. Some are internal documents, later published in a brochure, and most of them are newspaper and magazine articles from the PRT-La Verdad and the PST. They express the analyses and political proposals with which it was responding to the revolutionary rise that began in 1969, to which the military dictatorship and the traditional bourgeois forces, Peronism and radicalism responded with what was called the Great National Agreement. This compilation corresponds to the paper edition by El Socialista (later CEHuS) in 2013, with a presentation by the historian Hernan Camarero.

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                                        Feudalism and Capitalism in the Colonisation of America

                                          The Spanish, Portuguese, English, French and Dutch colonisation in America was essentially capitalist. Its objectives were capitalist and not feudal: organising production and discoveries to make prodigious profits and to place goods on the world market. They did not inaugurate a system of capitalist production because in America there was not an army of workers in the free market.

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                                          The Latin American governments and the revolutionary struggle

                                            September 1971. This paper was discussed and approved by the 6th Congress of the PRT-La Verdad in September 1971. It analyses the Latin American rise in progress since 1968, locating the new situation in Bolivia because of the triumph of the Banzer dictatorship in August 1971. It carefully characterises the governments of Peru (with Velasco Alvarado) and Chile (Popular Unity), to mark their peculiarities within the framework of their bourgeois class character, and the politics to respond as revolutionaries. Also, the electoral tactic towards the Broad Front in Uruguay.

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                                            The Militant: Interview with Nahuel Moreno

                                              In 1972, The Militant, journal of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, sent Fred Halstead as correspondent in Argentina for six weeks. His mandate was to report to the readers of The Militant, about the development of the revolutionary politics in Argentina, in particular on the policies and activities of the Argentine Socialist Party, soon to become Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores. As part of his brief, Halstead conducted this interview with Nahuel Moreno.

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                                              Lora renounces Trotskyism

                                                In Bolivia, a revolutionary workers’ and peasants’ uprise developed from 1969-70, which led to the emergence of the Popular Assembly in 1970. The military coup attempts of Miranda first and Hugo Banzer later were defeated with the mobilization. Finally, in August 1971, Banzer’s second military coup was victorious, establishing a bloody dictatorship. A few months later, from exile in Chile, various political organizations formed the FRA (Revolutionary Anti-Imperialist Front). We reproduce a letter by Nahuel Moreno arguing with the policy of Bolivian Guillermo Lora and Argentine Jorge Altamira of supporting FRA.

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                                                A socialist and revolutionary electoral campaign

                                                  In mid-1972, the PST achieved its electoral legality nationally and in several provinces (see texts in After the Cordobazo on this page). They put it at the service of promoting worker and socialist candidates. In the extraordinary congress of the PST, on 17 December of that year, the first text "Our electoral campaign" was discussed, which includes a platform with the central proposals that the candidates would disclose in the electoral agitation. And then Moreno completed it with the second text, dated 11 January 1973, more making reference referring to the orientation for the activity of the party. It was the first time that the Morenoist current faced a national electoral campaign of this magnitude; they used the tactics of the workers’ front and the workers' and socialist pole.

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                                                  Speech Closing the 1972 PST Congress

                                                    The second congress of the PST meets in December 1972 to choose the all-important presidential ticket for the March 1973 elections. The day before, the Workers' Front and the Juventud Socialista de Avanzada (PST’s Youth) had met in separate plenaries. Leandro Fote and Jose Paez do not accept the candidacies, part of the Cordovan delegation of the Workers’ Front objects to taking candidates to executive positions, a sector of the youth insists on the workers' character of the candidates. These and other burning issues are addressed by Moreno in his closing speech.

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                                                    Argentina and Bolivia, the balance sheet

                                                      Argentina and Bolivia: the Balance Sheet is a significant text that was forged in the heat of a radicalization of the class struggle in the political situation in Argentina and Latin America in the early 1970s and in the context of a deep and decisive theoretical and strategic debate within world Trotskyism. This paper reflects the revolutionary process in Argentina and Bolivia between 1968 and 1972, in the context of the polemic against guerrillaism promoted by Ernest Mandel worldwide and Roberto Santucho and Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso in Argentina and Bolivia respectively.

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                                                      Marxist Logic and Modern Sciences

                                                        Like Novak, Moreno's explanation "of logic in general and of Marxist logic in particular starts from and is aimed at political-revolutionary activity." He argues that there can be no Marxism without taking into account scientific development, especially that of modern psychology and epistemology, sciences that Piaget has revolutionized. Thus he comes out in defense of Engels against the attacks of Della Volpe and Sartre to get closer to the true thought of Marx. He makes a devastating criticism of Della Volpe himself, Leva Sartas, Althusser, Godelier, Mao Tsé Tung, etc., who, in addition to not taking into account the close relationship of Marxism with modern sciences, ignore the law of uneven and combined development, suggested already by Marx formulated by Trotsky and described by Piaget.

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                                                        The party and the revolution

                                                          The Party and the Revolution is one of the most important documents of Nahuel Moreno. In it is expressed the polemics with another Trotskyist leader, the Belgian Ernest Mandel (1924-1995). Mandel led since the early 1950s the current revisionist of Trotskyism (which identified itself for years as the “United Secretariat"). His written work is well known in the English language, first for his important papers on Marxist economics. In the early 1970s, when he wrote this book, Nahuel Moreno led the PST (Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores) of Argentina, one of the largest Trotskyist parties in the world. In his long journey he devoted much of his militant effort to the building of revolutionary socialist parties in his country and Latin America.

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                                                          Speech on Pacheco’s Massacre

                                                            At midnight on 29 May 1974, fifteen armed thugs broke into the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores (PST) premises in Pacheco and took six militants. Three of them — Oscar Dalmacio Meza, Mario Zidda, and Antonio Moses — were murdered. We reproduce here the speech by Nahuel Moreno, the next day, at national headquarters of the PST on 24 de Noviembre Street, in the neighbourhood of Once, at the funeral and rally of repudiation to the Pacheco Massacre.

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                                                            Revolution and counter revolution in Portugal

                                                              The whole of the left movement and the revolutionary agreed that Portugal was, in 1974-75, one of the main revolutionary centres of the world, and without a doubt, the axis of the European revolution. There was an important debate within the Fourth International. In this work Moreno polemises with the leadership of the SWP of United States and with the majority of the United Secretary headed by Ernest Mandel on how to develop the Portuguese and colonial revolutions.

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                                                              Our differences over Key Issues

                                                                Summary of the oral intervention by Comrade Nahuel Moreno, made to a delegation from the leadership of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) of the United States, formed by Comrades Joseph Hansen, Jack Barnes, Peter Camejo, Ed Shaw, Barry Sheppard, and Marie Alice Waters, before the National Convention of the SWP. In it, Moreno points out the differences with the SWP about the way forward for the Portuguese revolution that had started in april 1974.

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                                                                Memorandum for the reply of the PST(A) to the USec

                                                                  This material is an internal document of the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores [Socialist Workers Party, PST] of Argentina. It was written by Nahuel Moreno during the controversy developed in the Fourth International in 1974 and 1975 around the slogans of defence of bourgeois democracy raised by the PST given the danger of a possible coup d’état against the constitutionally elected Peronist government.

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                                                                  How a Revolutionary Party is built

                                                                    This work is a course given by Nahuel Moreno (February 1976) at a party school on Portugal. This explains why most of the examples are about the revolutionary situation in that country and also about Spain. But the subject is valid for any situation of the class struggle. The examples are very illustrative since they specifically present a series of general characterisations.

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                                                                    Capitulation to “Eurocomunism”

                                                                      Letter to the United Secretariat alerting against the statements by Ernest Mandel to the magazine Topo Viejo capitulating to Eurocommnism.

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                                                                      Spain: With the Cortes, Against the Monarchy

                                                                        In early 1977 it was becoming clear in Spain that the post-Franco regime was to call for elections to the Cortes. The Political Bureau of the Liga Comunista Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Communist League, LCR) published on 14 February a special issue of their journal Combate with the title “For workers’ unity at the elections”. This document synthesised the electoral policy of the Spanish LCR. Moreno polemises here with the centrist, revisionist and yielding to Eurocommnism positions exposed by the LCR.

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                                                                        Angola: The black revolution underway

                                                                          In April of 1975, a popular revolution finished with the dictatorship of Caetano in Portugal. One of its immediate consequences was the end of its colonial rule in Africa. In the case of Angola, it was agreed that on 11 November 1975, the formal act of independence would take place, but in August a bloody civil war that lasted for more than 20 years broke out. The confrontation between the MPLA (supported by the USSR, Cuba and the communist parties) and FLNA-UNITA occurred when there had not yet been a withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial army. There were different positions in the Fourth International (Unified Secretariat). The differences remained and deepened when, following the retreat of the colonialists, the confrontation between the MPLA and the FLNA-UNITA, directly supported by South Africa and its troops, continued. Moreno debated both the leadership of the United States SWP and the Mandelist majority headed by the French LCR.

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                                                                          The Revolutionary Dictatorship of the Proletariat

                                                                            This polemic book against the resolution “The Dictatorship of the proletariat and socialist democracy” presented by the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, was finished in July 1978. The manuscript was shown to an important group of political friends, who returned to me with some modifications and suggestions. None of them brought substantial changes to the original text, with the exception of that made by an Italian friend, on the definition of the revolutionary dictatorship. His view was to add to the six points with which I had defined revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat one which defined its nature. I picked up this observation, as well as all the others.

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                                                                            Perspectives and Revolutionary Politics after the Victory of the Nicaraguan Revolution

                                                                              Report by Nahuel Moreno to the Central Committee of the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores of Colombia —PST(C), held on 4 and 5 August 1979. In attendance were Kemel, from the leadership of the PST(C) and the Simon Bolívar Brigade (SBB), Javier Munera from the CC of the PST(C), who was wounded in combat in Nicaragua and other comrades who were in the front. Kemel and the other comrades also attended the Concentration for Victory, a rally for Nicaragua that took place in Bogota. Two or three days after the CC meeting, Kemel returned to Managua. And on the 16th of the same month, the SBB was expelled from Nicaragua.

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                                                                              The Transitional Program Today

                                                                                Nahuel Moreno wrote the theses we present today in order to serve as a basis to develop the program of the Fourth International – International Committee (CI-CI), organization created in 1980 as a merger of the current led by Nahuel Moreno — at that time called Bolshevik Faction (FB) — with the Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (CORCI) headed by Pierre Lambert. This first draft was never corrected or reworked, since these theses became a common text resulting from the discussion with Lambertism, this text was called Thesis Project for the Reorganisation (Reconstruction) of the Fourth International (Correspondencia Internacional –La Verdad, Bogota, January 1981). It was in the thesis we publish today that Moreno first exhibited in a comprehensive and systematic way the changes he thought should be made to the two pillars of the Trotskyist conception: The Theory of Permanent Revolution and The Transitional Program.

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                                                                                Oral report to the expanded CC of the Peruvian PST

                                                                                  In 1980, great opportunities opened up to get the Peruvian party to achieve mass influence. At the same time there were great challenges of internal organisation. Nahuel Moreno gives details of the internal organisation of the Bolshevik party, without which there is no possibility of becoming a party of masses and leading the proletarian revolution.

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                                                                                  On the Polish political revolution

                                                                                    Four papers by Nahuel Moreno from 1981/1982 about the development of the political revolution in Poland began in the 1970s that gave birth to solidarity and which was crushed by the military coup of Jaruzelski in December 1981, its links to the workers’ revolution in Europe and the slogans and tasks to be raised by the revolutionists.

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                                                                                    The Mitterrand government, its perspectives and our policy

                                                                                      In 1981, after the electoral victory in France of the popular front lead by Francois Mitterrand and the support to it by the OCI(u) led by Pierre Lambert, the Fourth International (International Committee) was in a process of splitting. This article deals with the policies for the popular front left to us by Lenin and Trotsky, the policies of the OCI(u), what are the sectarian, opportunist, and Leninist-Trotskyist policies.

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                                                                                      Letter to the CC of the spanish POSI

                                                                                        This letter from Moreno to the Central Committee of the spanish POSI insist in develope a wide debate on OCI´s policy in France, against capitulation to Miterrand.

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                                                                                        Central America: Six countries, one nationality, one revolution

                                                                                          With ongoing revolutions in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, Nahuel Moreno elaborates several general considerations which allow framing the broad features of the Central American revolution, and from there to develop the transitional program.

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                                                                                          A new leadership emerges

                                                                                            Report by Nahuel Moreno to the General Council of the Fourth International (International Committee) at the end of May 1981, and published in Panorama Internacional, Year V, No 17, August 1981.

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                                                                                            Speech on the opportunistic shift by Lambertism

                                                                                              January 1982, founding conference of the LIT-CI. One of the thematic axes was to reject support for the French Social Democratic government that promoted Lambertism. We reproduce Moreno's intervention on bourgeois front-populist governments.

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                                                                                              Worker’s Front: The Origin of a Tactic

                                                                                                This text makes explicit a rectification regarding what is written in the CI-CI program in relation to the tactic of the united workers front of the Third International launched between the III and IV congresses, and points out the opportunistic interpretation given by Lambertism.

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                                                                                                Opportunism, trotskyism, and the popular front governments

                                                                                                  These theses were prepared by Nahuel Moreno, put to a vote and approved by the founding conference of the International Workers League - Fourth International (IWL–FI)) in 1982.

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                                                                                                  End of unity with lambertism

                                                                                                    Four articles from 1982 presenting the final conclusions of the experience with Lambertism. “The existence of an Orthodox Trotskyist tendency is a fact”, “The centre of revisionism is the USec”, “Workers’ Front: the origin of a tactic”, and “Sui generis Bonapartism and popular-frontism”. They are translated from Correo Internacional #3, February 1982, Bogota, Colombia.

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                                                                                                    Party Cadres’ School: Venezuela 1982

                                                                                                      The current headed by Moreno (Bolshevik Faction) withdrew from the United Secretariat after the majority led by Ernest Mandel supported the repression to and expulsion of the Simon Bolivar Brigade by the Sandinista government in Nicaragua in August 1979. The OCRFI, Lambert’s current, repudiated the repression and was in solidarity with the Simon Bolivar Brigade. (You can see on this page a book on the SBB). Throughout 1980 a debate was developed on programmatic texts (“The Transitional Program Today", by Nahuel Moreno, also on this page), and in December 1981 the FI-IC was founded. From the moment the Social Democrat François Mitterrand become president of France in May 1981 increasing differences began to emerge, and the unification was quickly thwarted.

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                                                                                                      Why does Fidel negotiate in secret with Reagan?

                                                                                                        Moreno's text on secret negotiations between Fidel Castro and Ronald Reagan. It has with the text "Two policies for Cuba and the United Workers' annex.

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                                                                                                        The OCI(u)’s Betrayal

                                                                                                          In December 1980, Moreno's current unified with the Organising Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (OCRFI) directed by Pierre Lambert. The Bolshevik Faction had withdrawn from the Mandelist Unified Secretariat for the support of these (and the US SWP) for the repression and expulsion of the Simon Bolívar Brigade in August 1979. The unification was based on principled agreements on the Nicaraguan revolution and an extensive program. In May 1981 a popular front led by the Socialist and Communist Parties wins the elections. The OCI, the OCRFI’s party in France, capitulates and gives its support to the Popular Front led by François Mitterrand. This document polemises with the revisionist and opportunist positions of the OCI’s "theory of progressive camps".

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                                                                                                          For a secular, democratic and non-racist Palestine!

                                                                                                            In an article from 1982 Moreno argued in defence of this traditional PLO slogan and gave a definition of this organisation. In other texts he refers to the Nazi characteristics of Israel and other aspects of the invasion of the Zionist oppressors of Palestine. It once again rejects the old political manoeuvre of attacking those who fight against Zionism by calling them "anti-Semites".

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                                                                                                            1982: The revolution begins

                                                                                                              In June 1982, General Bignone took over the government of Argentina, having gained the support of all the bourgeois parties in the country, primarily from the two major parties, the Peronist and the Radical. Without wanting to exaggerate, we believe that it has been the most important event so far this century. It was the final fall of the bloodiest and most totalitarian regime we have known in Argentina. The total collapse of the genocidal dictatorship established in March 1976, which kidnapped and murdered tens of thousands of people.

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                                                                                                              Argentina: A triumphant democratic revolution

                                                                                                                Report presented to the IEC of the IWL-FI, March 1983

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                                                                                                                Revolutions of the 20th Century

                                                                                                                  Starting with the debates on the fall of the dictatorship in Argentina in June 1982 Moreno progressed with his elaboration on the processes of reform or revolution in the changes of political regimes (such as post-Francoism, Argentina, Brazil, etc.). He also took up the systematisation of the different revolutions of the 20th century from the October victory in Russia in 1917 onwards, the definitions of the epochs, stages and situations, etc. This work was used as study material in the party cadre’s school in the summer of 1984. A letter on the fall of the dictatorship in Brazil and quotes from Lenin and Trotsky on the revolutionary situation are included.

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                                                                                                                  Organizational Issues

                                                                                                                    On 16 July, 1984 Comrade Nahuel Moreno was invited by the Socialist Youth to give a talk about organizational issues of the revolutionary party. The text that follows is the corrected transcription.

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                                                                                                                    Party cadres' school: Argentina 1984

                                                                                                                      In the southern hemisphere summer of 1984, Nahuel Moreno conducted a school for the cadres of the Movimiento al Socialismo [Movement Towards Socialism – MAS] 1 of Argentina, whose central theme was the theory of contemporary revolutions. This is the main content of the work presented here.

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                                                                                                                      The Tiger of Pobladora

                                                                                                                        Between May and August 1984 Moreno recorded interviews on most personal aspects of his life and career, with the journalist Raul Veiga, who had been a member of the PST for many years. That work was interrupted. First, because of Moreno's turn to the elaboration of the book that was published as Conversations ... (available on this page). And later for his death in January 1987. In 2006 it was published in print by Ediciones El Socialista. In these pages appears a Moreno almost unknown in many aspects, speaking as he had never done about his family, his youth, his beginnings in the militancy in the workers’ movement and Trotskyism, his virtues and defects and many other aspects of everyday life.

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                                                                                                                        On the historical subjects

                                                                                                                          A talk-debate with Andre Gunder Frank, September 1984

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                                                                                                                          Historic materialism: elementary concepts

                                                                                                                            This pamphlet is the transcription, corrected by Nahuel Moreno, on an introduction to Historical Materialism that began the party cadres school in the summer 1983–84.

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                                                                                                                            Speeches in the second congress of the MAS

                                                                                                                              In March 1985 was held in Buenos Aires the second congress of the MAS. Nahuel Moreno was the informant on the international situation. We reproduce his report. He only managed to tell the delegates a brief first part as within minutes he felt ill and retired. The most comprehensive part was presented to the delegates in a recording. We also reproduce his brief speech arguing with Enrique Broquen, who had been linked to the beginning of the formation of a faction that existed in the congress and with which he had already debated in the international point.

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                                                                                                                              Speeches in the first congress of the IWL-FI

                                                                                                                                In March 1985, in Buenos Aires, the first world congress of the international organisation headed by Moreno was held, and at that time it was called the IWL-FI (founded in 1982 in Bogotá, Colombia). The three central themes to which Moreno spoke about — among others — were about the revolutionary world situation, the tactics of the revolutionary united front and the minimum program that could allow it to be put into practice.

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                                                                                                                                Discussions in the IEC of the IWL-FI

                                                                                                                                  At the meeting of the International Executive Committee on 11 May 1985 were discussed important issues of the world situation and how to seize the opportunities presented. Topics include: Bolivia, the general strike and the insurrection; the situation in Spain; about Lutte Ouvrière; and discussion about Colombia.

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                                                                                                                                  International Manifesto

                                                                                                                                    This work was written by Nahuel Moreno and collaborators. Its guidelines were approved in 1985 by the First World Congress of the IWL-FI, the last one held during Moreno's life The International Workers Unity- Fourth International (IWU-FI), which promotes this page, considers it a fundamental part of its programmatic heritage.

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                                                                                                                                    Discussion for Colombia and Mexico on the tactic of the revolutionary united front

                                                                                                                                      In 1985–1986 a sector of the Colombian PST leadership began to promote an orientation of political unity with a union organization, A Luchar, linked to the guerrillas. This resulted in an important internal discussion. Moreno warned it was not correct and that agreements should be kept in the field of trade unionism and struggles, given the irreconcilable political differences with the guerrilla organisation.

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                                                                                                                                      To be a Trotskyst today

                                                                                                                                        In an interview conducted in August 1985 and first published in 1988 (Esbozo biográfico. Cuadernos de Correo Internacional), Moreno defined the meaning of being a Trotskyist.

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                                                                                                                                        Theses on the Guerrilla

                                                                                                                                          These theses were written as part of the debate was developed in 1986 within orthodox Trotskyism, with a sector of Colombian comrades who were for an approach to a trade union sector influenced by the ELN guerrilla, in the perspective of forming a common party. In its pages, it is found the conception of the current headed by Moreno, which, based on the teachings of Marx, Lenin, and Trotsky, rejects the guerrilla strategy and of individual terrorism, and proposes the construction of revolutionary workers’ parties with an influence of masses.

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                                                                                                                                          Elementary political concepts

                                                                                                                                            This paper intended to bring in a simple and easy manner to the whole of the militancy, particularly to the new litters, the central tools of political elaboration that Moreno had been developing and defending in his polemics within and without Trotskyism (in particular with Comrade Ernest Mandel).

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                                                                                                                                            Conversations with Nahuel Moreno

                                                                                                                                              Conversations was the last book published by Nahuel Moreno, before his death on January 25, 1987. Since 1986, this text has been circulating among new and old members of Trotskyism, and also has served as pleasant reading for many people curious about socialist ideas.

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                                                                                                                                              Sandinism and the Nicaraguan Revolution

                                                                                                                                                A few months before his death, Nahuel Moreno received a letter from one of the greatest Argentine intellectuals, the writer, dramatist, actor, and psychotherapist Eduardo Pavlovsky. Pavlovsky, who for fifteen years had been part of the current that Moreno founded, reflects very important concerns about the role of Sandinism and Castro in the Central American revolution. We think it is useful to make known that letter and the response that Moreno sent him, since it expresses important debates.

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                                                                                                                                                Four tips by Lenin

                                                                                                                                                  The article "Four tips by Lenin" was published in 1986 in Contraprensa, the magazine of the Socialist Youth of the MAS. In brief pages, Moreno contrasts the Leninist conceptions and practice with the monolithic and vertical bureaucratism characteristic of the communist parties.

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                                                                                                                                                  Our experience with lambertism

                                                                                                                                                    The split of the FI (IC) was anticipated by the divergences around another great fact of the world class struggle, the Polish revolution. And it was precipitated by a key political fact, the triumph of Mitterrand in France. The program and the policy on the face of his government originated an abyss, an opposition by the apex between our current and the one of Lambert. Finally, as Lambert prevented the democratic discussion of these differences, the total breakdown took place, which became absolutely irreversible when he added to his bureaucratic methods a despicable moral attack on an old leader who came from his own current.

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                                                                                                                                                    Speeches in the IEC of IWL-FI (April 1986)

                                                                                                                                                      The material published here contain most of the speeches by Nahuel Moreno at the meeting of the International Executive Committee (IEC) of IWL–FI held on April 1986. They give continuity to the elaborations and documents approved at the First World Congress in 1985 and the Foundation Congress in 1982 of the international organization that Moreno headed until his death in 1987 and called IWL–FI (International Workers League – Fourth International).

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                                                                                                                                                      Open letter to the PST(C) about A Luchar

                                                                                                                                                        Nahuel Moreno wrote this letter before the Congress of the PST (C) which addressed a historical discussion, the most important since the founding of the party because they had to choose between two lines: one that tends to dissolve the party in A Luchar [To Fight], adopting its newspaper as the central instrument for our political activity, and one that proposes to strengthen the Trotskyist party more than ever, with its newspaper, its politics and its program.

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                                                                                                                                                        Edited books

                                                                                                                                                        (Only in spanish)

                                                                                                                                                        El Partido y la Revolución (1973)

                                                                                                                                                        Teoría, programa y política: polémicas con Ernest Mandel.

                                                                                                                                                        Actualización del Programa de Transición (1980)

                                                                                                                                                        41 tesis elaboradas por Nahuel Moreno a principios de los años 80.

                                                                                                                                                        Polémica con el Che Guevara (1964)

                                                                                                                                                        Incluye texto de Ernesto Guevara "Guerra de guerrillas: un método"

                                                                                                                                                        Método de interpretación de la historia argentina (1975)

                                                                                                                                                        Cuatro tesis sobre la colonización española y portugesa en América

                                                                                                                                                        El golpe gorila de 1955

                                                                                                                                                        Las posiciones del trotskismo

                                                                                                                                                        Perú: dos estrategias(1961-63)

                                                                                                                                                        La rebelión campesina encabezada por Hugo Blanco y la polémica con el putschismo

                                                                                                                                                        Problemas de Organización (1984)

                                                                                                                                                        Incluye El Partido (1943) y fragmentos del ¿Qué hacer? de Lenin

                                                                                                                                                        De Illia a Onganía

                                                                                                                                                        Textos de 1964, 65 y 66

                                                                                                                                                        Conversaciones con Nahuel Moreno (1986)

                                                                                                                                                        Entrevistas realizadas por Daniel Costa, Marcos Trogo y Raúl Tuny

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