| The Party |
We are publishing for the first time since 1944, this foundational document of the Marxist Workers Group (GOM). Written in 1943 by a young Nahuel Moreno, barely 19 years old. Polemising against Liborio Justo (Quebracho), Moreno proposes to move away from the circles and debates of intellectuals that predominated in Trotskyism. Its central axis is to connect with the workers' movement and its struggles. Thus, with a handful of young people, he began to take the first steps in the construction of a revolutionary party, following the guidance of Lenin in his book What is to be done?
| Theses of Leeds (Theses on the Revolutionary United Front) |
Paper presented to the Congress of the International Committee of the Fourth International, held in Leeds, Great Britain. In this paper, Moreno deals with the crises open within the counter-revolutionary Stalinist apparatuses after the political revolution in Hungary and its crashing by the Red Army in 1956.
| Peru: two strategies |
The peasant rebellion headed by Hugo Blanco and the polemic with putschism (1961-1963).
| Two methods for the Latin American revolution |
Critical remarks to the works of Ernesto “Che” Guevara “The guerrilla warfare”, “Cuba: exceptional case or vanguard in the struggle against colonialism” and “Guerrilla warfare: a method”. Article published in the magazine Estrategia (second era), Buenos Aires, 1964.
| Guevara: Hero and martyr of the permanent revolution |
Article published in La Verdad, organ of the PRT (Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Revolutionary Workers Party) of Argentina on the 23 October 1967, shortly after Guevara’s assassination
| The Chinese and Indochinese Revolutions |
While the October Revolution began the epoch of world socialist revolution, the Chinese Revolution definitively broke the imperialist equilibrium. It temporarily transferred the centre of the world revolution to the underdeveloped and colonial nations. It ended the isolation of the Soviet Union and thus posed an immediate possibility of a Federation of Eurasian Socialist States, a possible bridge to a World Federation of Socialist States. It forced Yankee Imperialism to develop a worldwide strategy to confront the colonial revolution. It indirectly produced two counter-revolutionary wars, the Korean and Indochinese. It has made the destruction of imperialism within its own borders, as the only way to avert a nuclear war, an urgent necessity on the world political agenda. Finally, it has posed the problem of problems, that of a unified strategy and organisation by which the revolutionaries of the entire planet may confront imperialism.
| Feudalism and Capitalism in the Colonisation of America |
The Spanish, Portuguese, English, French and Dutch colonisation in America was essentially capitalist. Its objectives were capitalist and not feudal: organising production and discoveries to make prodigious profits and to place goods on the world market. They did not inaugurate a system of capitalist production because in America there was not an army of workers in the free market.
| Interview with Nahuel Moreno |
In 1972, The Militant, journal of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, sent Fred Halstead as correspondent in Argentina for six weeks. His mandate was to report to the readers of The Militant, about the development of the revolutionary politics in Argentina, in particular on the policies and activities of the Argentine Socialist Party, soon to become Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores. As part of his brief, Halstead conducted this interview with Nahuel Moreno.
| The party and the revolution |
The Party and the Revolution is one of the most important documents of Nahuel Moreno. In it is expressed the polemics with another Trotskyist leader, the Belgian Ernest Mandel (1924-1995). Mandel led since the early 1950s the current revisionist of Trotskyism (which identified itself for years as the “United Secretariat"). His written work is well known in the English language, first for his important papers on Marxist economics. In the early 1970s, when he wrote this book, Nahuel Moreno led the PST (Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores) of Argentina, one of the largest Trotskyist parties in the world. In his long journey he devoted much of his militant effort to the building of revolutionary socialist parties in his country and Latin America.
| Argentina and Bolivia – the Balance Sheet |
Argentina and Bolivia: the Balance Sheet is a significant text that was forged in the heat of a radicalization of the class struggle in the political situation in Argentina and Latin America in the early 1970s and in the context of a deep and decisive theoretical and strategic debate within world Trotskyism. This paper reflects the revolutionary process in Argentina and Bolivia between 1968 and 1972, in the context of the polemic against guerrillaism promoted by Ernest Mandel worldwide and Roberto Santucho and Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso in Argentina and Bolivia respectively.
| Revolution and Counter Revolution in Portugal |
The whole of the left movement and the revolutionary agreed that Portugal was, in 1974-75, one of the main revolutionary centres of the world, and without a doubt, the axis of the European revolution. There was an important debate within the Fourth International.In this work Moreno polemises with the leadership of the SWP of United States and with the majority of the United Secretary headed by Ernest Mandel on how to develop the Portuguese and colonial revolutions.
| Our differences over Key Issues |
Summary of the oral intervention by Comrade Nahuel Moreno, made to a delegation from the leadership of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) of the United States, formed by Comrades Joseph Hansen, Jack Barnes, Peter Camejo, Ed Shaw, Barry Sheppard, and Marie Alice Waters, before the National Convention of the SWP. In it, Moreno points out the differences with the SWP about the way forward for the Portuguese revolution that had started in april 1974.
| Memorandum for the reply of the PST(A) to the USec |
| Capitulation to "Eurocommnism" |
Letter to the United Secretariat alerting against the statements by Ernest Mandel to the magazine Topo Viejo capitulating to Eurocommnism.
| Spain: With the Cortes, Against the Monarchy |
In early 1977 it was becoming clear in Spain that the post-Franco regime was to call for elections to the Cortes. The Political Bureau of the Liga Comunista Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Communist League, LCR) published on 14 February a special issue of their journal Combate with the title “For workers’ unity at the elections”. This document synthesised the electoral policy of the Spanish LCR. Moreno polemises here with the centrist, revisionist and yielding to Eurocommnism positions exposed by the LCR.
| Angola: The Black Revolution Underway |
In April of 1975, a popular revolution finished with the dictatorship of Caetano in Portugal. One of its immediate consequences was the end of its colonial rule in Africa. In the case of Angola, it was agreed that on 11 November 1975, the formal act of independence would take place, but in August a bloody civil war that lasted for more than 20 years broke out.
The confrontation between the MPLA (supported by the USSR, Cuba and the communist parties) and FLNA-UNITA occurred when there had not yet been a withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial army. There were different positions in the Fourth International (Unified Secretariat). The differences remained and deepened when, following the retreat of the colonialists, the confrontation between the MPLA and the FLNA-UNITA, directly supported by South Africa and its troops, continued.
Moreno debated both the leadership of the United States SWP and the Mandelist majority headed by the French LCR.
| The Revolutionary Dictatorship of the Proletariat |
This polemic book against the resolution “The Dictatorship of the proletariat and socialist democracy” presented by the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, was finished in July 1978. The manuscript was shown to an important group of political friends, who returned to me with some modifications and suggestions. None of them brought substantial changes to the original text, with the exception of that made by an Italian friend, on the definition of the revolutionary dictatorship. His view was to add to the six points with which I had defined revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat one which defined its nature. I picked up this observation, as well as all the others.
| Perspectives and Revolutionary Politics after the Victory of the Nicaraguan Revolution |
Report by Nahuel Moreno to the Central Committee of the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores of Colombia —PST(C), held on 4 and 5 August 1979. In attendance were Kemel, from the leadership of the PST(C) and the Simon Bolívar Brigade (SBB), Javier Munera from the CC of the PST(C), who was wounded in combat in Nicaragua and other comrades who were in the front. Kemel and the other comrades also attended the Concentration for Victory, a rally for Nicaragua that took place in Bogota. Two or three days after the CC meeting, Kemel returned to Managua. And on the 16th of the same month, the SBB was expelled from Nicaragua.
| The Transitional Program Today |
Nahuel Moreno wrote the theses we present today in order to serve as a basis to develop the program of the Fourth International – International Committee (CI-CI), organization created in 1980 as a merger of the current led by Nahuel Moreno — at that time called Bolshevik Faction (FB) — with the Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (CORCI) headed by Pierre Lambert. This first draft was never corrected or reworked, since these theses became a common text resulting from the discussion with Lambertism, this text was called Thesis Project for the Reorganisation (Reconstruction) of the Fourth International (Correspondencia Internacional –La Verdad, Bogota, January 1981). It was in the thesis we publish today that Moreno first exhibited in a comprehensive and systematic way the changes he thought should be made to the two pillars of the Trotskyist conception: The Theory of Permanent Revolution and The Transitional Program.
| Letter to the CC of the Spanish POSI |
| Central America: Six Countries, One Nationality, One Revolution |
With ongoing revolutions in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, Nahuel Moreno elaborates several general considerations which allow framing the broad features of the Central American revolution, and from there to develop the transitional program.
| A new leadership emerges |
Report by Nahuel Moreno to the General Council of the Fourth International (International Committee) at the end of May 1981, and published in Panorama Internacional, Year V, No 17, August 1981.
| Party Cadres’ School: Venezuela 1982 |
The current headed by Moreno (Bolshevik Faction) withdrew from the United Secretariat after the majority led by Ernest Mandel supported the repression to and expulsion of the Simon Bolivar Brigade by the Sandinista government in Nicaragua in August 1979. The OCRFI, Lambert’s current, repudiated the repression and was in solidarity with the Simon Bolivar Brigade. (You can see on this page a book on the SBB). Throughout 1980 a debate was developed on programmatic texts (“The Transitional Program Today", by Nahuel Moreno, also on this page), and in December 1981 the FI-IC was founded. From the moment the Social Democrat François Mitterrand become president of France in May 1981 increasing differences began to emerge, and the unification was quickly thwarted.
| Why does Fidel negotiate in secret with Reagan? |
Moreno's text on secret negotiations between Fidel Castro and Ronald Reagan. It has with the text "Two policies for Cuba and the United Workers' annex
| The OCI (u)’s Betrayal |
In December 1980, Moreno's current unified with the Organising Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (OCRFI) directed by Pierre Lambert. The Bolshevik Faction had withdrawn from the Mandelist Unified Secretariat for the support of these (and the US SWP) for the repression and expulsion of the Simon Bolívar Brigade in August 1979. The unification was based on principled agreements on the Nicaraguan revolution and an extensive program. In May 1981 a popular front led by the Socialist and Communist Parties wins the elections. The OCI, the OCRFI’s party in France, capitulates and gives its support to the Popular Front led by François Mitterrand. This document polemises with the revisionist and opportunist positions of the OCI’s "theory of progressive camps".
| Opportunism, Trotskyism, and the Popular Front governments |
These theses were prepared by Nahuel Moreno, put to a vote and approved by the founding conference of the International Workers League - Fourth International (IWL–FI)) in 1982.
| End of unity with Lambertism |
Four articles from 1982 presenting the final conclusions of the experience with Lambertism. “The existence of an Orthodox Trotskyist tendency is a fact”, “The centre of revisionism is the USec”, “Workers’ Front: the origin of a tactic”, and “Sui generis Bonapartism and popular-frontism”. They are translated from Correo Internacional #3, February 1982, Bogota, Colombia.
| Argentina: A Triumphant Democratic Revolution |
Report presented to the IEC of the IWL-FI, March 1983
| 1982 The Revolution Begins |
In June 1982, General Bignone took over the government of Argentina, having gained the support of all the bourgeois parties in the country, primarily from the two major parties, the Peronist and the Radical. Without wanting to exaggerate, we believe that it has been the most important event so far this century. It was the final fall of the bloodiest and most totalitarian regime we have known in Argentina. The total collapse of the genocidal dictatorship established in March 1976, which kidnapped and murdered tens of thousands of people.
| Party Cadres' School Argentina 1984 |
In the southern hemisphere summer of 1984, Nahuel Moreno conducted a school for the cadres of the Movimiento al Socialismo [Movement Towards Socialism – MAS] 1 of Argentina, whose central theme was the theory of contemporary revolutions. This is the main content of the work presented here.
| On the historical Subjects |
A talk-debate with Andre Gunder Frank, September 1984
| Historic Materialism: Elementary concepts |
This pamphlet is the transcription, corrected by Nahuel Moreno, on an introduction to Historical Materialism that began the party cadres school in the summer 1983–84.
| Speeches in the Second Congress of the MAS |
In March 1985 was held in Buenos Aires the second congress of the MAS. Nahuel Moreno was the informant on the international situation. We reproduce his report. He only managed to tell the delegates a brief first part as within minutes he felt ill and retired. The most comprehensive part was presented to the delegates in a recording. We also reproduce his brief speech arguing with Enrique Broquen, who had been linked to the beginning of the formation of a faction that existed in the congress and with which he had already debated in the international point.
| Speeches in the First Congress |
In March 1985, in Buenos Aires, the first world congress of the international organisation headed by Moreno was held, and at that time it was called the IWL-FI (founded in 1982 in Bogotá, Colombia). The three central themes to which Moreno spoke about — among others — were about the revolutionary world situation, the tactics of the revolutionary united front and the minimum program that could allow it to be put into practice.
| Conversations with Nahuel Moreno |
Conversations was the last book published by Nahuel Moreno, before his death on January 25, 1987. Since 1986, this text has been circulating among new and old members of Trotskyism, and also has served as pleasant reading for many people curious about socialist ideas.
| To be a Trotskyst today |
In an interview conducted in August 1985 and first published in 1988 (Esbozo biográfico. Cuadernos de Correo Internacional), Moreno defined the meaning of being a Trotskyist.
| Revolutions of the XX Century |
The paper we are publishing under the title Revolutions of the XX Century was a quick summary prepared on the run by Nahuel Moreno in January 1984, for the study and discussion of the party’s cadre schools. Many of the issues raised there are still under research and discussion, and hence we want to highlight the nature of summary and draft this paper.
To advance in the study and discussion of the process of the Brazilian revolution we are publishing a letter from Nahuel Moreno to the leadership of Alicerce, written shortly after the mass demonstrations of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro which caused the fall of the military dictatorship.
About the revolutionary situation, we want to help the discussion by publishing some key quotes by Lenin and Trotsky.
| Organizational Issues |
On 16 July, 1984 Comrade Nahuel Moreno was invited by the Socialist Youth to give a talk about organizational issues of the revolutionary party. The text that follows is the corrected transcription.
| Elementary Political Concepts |
This paper intended to bring in a simple and easy manner to the whole of the militancy, particularly to the new litters, the central tools of political elaboration that Moreno had been developing and defending in his polemics within and without Trotskyism (in particular with Comrade Ernest Mandel).
| Four tips by Lenin |
The article "Four tips by Lenin" was published in 1986 in Contraprensa, the magazine of the Socialist Youth of the MAS. In brief pages, Moreno contrasts the Leninist conceptions and practice with the monolithic and vertical bureaucratism characteristic of the communist parties.
| Our experience with Lambertism |
| Theses on the Guerrilla |
These theses were written as part of the debate was developed in 1986 within orthodox Trotskyism, with a sector of Colombian comrades who were for an approach to a trade union sector influenced by the ELN guerrilla, in the perspective of forming a common party. In its pages, it is found the conception of the current headed by Moreno, which, based on the teachings of Marx, Lenin, and Trotsky, rejects the guerrilla strategy and of individual terrorism, and proposes the construction of revolutionary workers’ parties with an influence of masses.
| Open letter to the PST(C) about A Luchar |
| The Simon Bolivar Brigade. The Latin American combatants who fought to overthrow the dictator Somoza |
In 1979, Nicaragua shook the Latin American continent. On 19 July we saw the victory of a revolution led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which swept away the bloody dictatorship of the Somoza family. From a sector of revolutionary Trotskyism, the international current led by Nahuel Moreno, the support to the anti-Somoza struggle materialized in the formation of an international brigade of fighters: the Simon Bolivar Brigade. Following the tradition of the International Brigades who fought on the Republican side against Franco’s fascism, from Bogota they recruited hundreds of fighters and many of them travelled and fought on Nicaraguan soil.
Nahuel Moreno's texts are included.
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